Center of Excellence for Reducing the Supply of Illicit Drugs - CdE

Monitoring and Prevention of Illicit Crops

Published in October 2022

Contextualization of the theme

Illicit crops are crops grown with the main purpose of preparing illicit psychoactive products or substances, which, when introduced into the body by any route of administration, can alter the functioning of the human being's Central Nervous System (CNS) and generate dependence. The three main illicit crops in the world are coca, poppy and cannabis — which give rise to much of the psychoactive substances consumed worldwide.

These illicit agricultural practices are often based on the illegal use of renewable natural resources. Planting is usually preceded by the cutting and burning of forests or native vegetation, causing serious ecological damage and the destruction of important strategic environmental assets. Such practices are sometimes associated with other criminal activities, such as illegal mining, deforestation, terrorism, money laundering and human trafficking, in dynamics that vary across countries and continents (WHITE, 2011). Thus, illicit crops constitute a fundamental component of the global chain of production and trafficking of illicit drugs, representing one of the main sources of income for transnational organized crime (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h) (GLOBAL FINANCIAL INTEGRITY, 2017) .

Currently, the international drug control system is governed at the global level by three UN conventions: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961); the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971); and the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988), with illicit crops being subject to control by these Conventions — which are important global, legally binding instruments for taking appropriate measures to prevent and eradicate plantations. for the production of drugs, and to protect public health.

In Brazil, Law No. 11.343/20061, which defines crimes related to the practice of illicit drug trafficking, provides in its article 33 that, among the various conducts that characterize drug trafficking, is the act of “preparing, producing, manufacturing” drugs, or the action of those who “sows, cultivates or harvests (…) plants that constitute raw material for the preparation of drugs” without authorization or in disagreement with the legal or regulatory determination.

The following is a brief characterization of the main illicit crops mentioned above:

The main illicit crops in the world

Prepared by: CdE – Center of Excellence for Reducing the Supply of Illicit Drugs.
Sources: (GUEVARA, 2018) (NIGGENDIJKER, 2006) (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, 2007).

 

Coke: erythroxylum coca

Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a plant native to the Andes of South America.2, used since pre-Columbian times as food, stimulant, analgesic or sedative and linked to the way of life of many South American indigenous communities (POLICÍA NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA, 2014) (PLOWMAN, 2004). There are approximately 250 species (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021a), the most common in the region being: Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021a 2010a). Coca leaves contain several components such as tannins, essential oils and multiple alkaloids. The alkaloids contained in coca leaves are divided into two groups: tropinonal derivatives (cocaine, methyl-ecgonine, truxiline, tropa cocaine, cis cocaine and trans-cinnamyl) and pyrolysis derivatives (hygrine and cuscohygrine) (POLICÍA NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA, 2014). Specifically, cocaine (tropanoid-like alkaloid) is extracted from coca leaves by chemical processes and cocaine/cocaine hydrochloride (illicit substance) is produced as the main end product sold to consumers.

Cocaine hydrochloride production process

There are several ways to produce cocaine hydrochloride, but most cocaine production processes focus on 4 different stages from the following products: coca leaves; basic cocaine paste (PBC), from the extraction of cocaine alkaloid from coca leaves; cocaine base (BC) and finally cocaine hydrochloride (CC) (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021a). The distinction between the terms “cocaine base paste” and “cocaine base” is often used interchangeably by growers (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2010a).

Cocaine base paste, also known as “cocaine base paste” or “coca paste”, is the first by-product obtained in the initial phase of the extraction of alkaloids from the coca leaf, from fuels and sulfuric acid. PBC is an ammonium salt of cocaine or cocaine carbonate, depending on whether ammonium hydroxide or carbonate is used for the precipitation of cocaine sulfate. This substance has a high percentage of organic residues, organic pigments, sugars, tannins and other substances present in the coca leaf, it has an approximate purity of 60% in cocaine content (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2010a, 2021b).
Cocaine base is the second product, intermediate between coca leaf and cocaine hydrochloride, obtained from the refining of PBC through the use of oxidizing substances – preferably potassium permanganate. This process consists of removing the impurities in order to leave as much cocaine as possible and can reach high levels of purity — approximately 80% (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021a).

Finally, cocaine hydrochloride is a salt that is produced from BC through a series of reactions that include pH changes and precipitation processes, ending with the addition of hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME). , 2010a, 2021b). It is the end product of the manufacturing process and is the main component of products sold around the world, in numerous wholesale, semi-wholesale and retail markets (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021a). PBC and BC are not water soluble; are products that can be smoked; are more addictive and more degenerative for the user than cocaine hydrochloride. CC is water-soluble and is inhaled through the nose, or by intravenous injection (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021b).

Cocaine production has reached unprecedented levels, with the global volume of seizures doubling between 2014 and 2019, reaching an estimated 1.436 tonnes seized in 2019, setting a seizure record. Regarding areas affected by illicit coca crops, data from 2019 indicate an estimated reduction of 5% in the global area of ​​crops compared to the previous year. In Colombia, between 2019 and 2020, although there was a 7% decrease in the areas affected by illicit coca crops, there was an increase in the potential production of the drug per hectare: from 6,7 kg in 2019 to 7,9 kg in 2020 ( UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h). This fact may be related to the use of agrocultural practices that improved the extraction capacity of the alkaloid and the increase in the size of cocaine production complexes (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021e).

Global cocaine estimates

Infographic adapted from UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h.

Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are the main producing countries of cocaine coca (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h) in the world, and to a lesser extent are Ecuador (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2010b) and the border region of Venezuela with Colombia (PINTO, 2017) (LUCENA, 2017) (RANGEL, 2021). On the other hand, Europe and the US continue to be important global markets for consumption and trafficking, with an estimated 90% of cocaine entering the US coming from South America (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h , 2010) (EUROPEAN MONITORING CENTER FOR DRUGS AND DRUG ADDICTION, 2021).

 

Poppy: Papaver somniferum

The poppy (Papaver somniferum) belongs to the family of Papaveraceae, which are superovariate dicotyledonous and dialipetaloid plants, with 23 genera and approximately 250 species (GREY-WILSON, 2000), although this number may vary within each genus, according to botanists. (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 1953). Its production is historically linked to the analgesic and narcotic potential from latex derivatives, obtained from the plant's bulb, and consumed in the form of opium, morphine and heroin. The discovery of these properties dates back to 3300 BC, and the literature recognizes practices and studies on the use of opium by different communities in regions of Europe and the Middle East (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2019a).

Despite being a robust plant, which can be grown in varied environments, the poppy does not withstand extremely low temperatures, and its yield is considerably affected by weather conditions and humidity. In addition, it is an annual plant and can be grown in autumn or spring, depending mainly on the alternation between rainy and dry seasons that determine the opium yield. That is, to obtain optimal yields, it must have the necessary amount of moisture during the appropriate time in its growth cycle, and higher temperatures once flowering has occurred (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 1953).

Due to these agrocultural characteristics, the poppy has spread in practically all temperate and warm areas of the earth's surface, from Asia to South America and North America.

Heroin, or diacetylmorphine, is a drug produced from morphine, which in turn is extracted from opium. The effects of these substances are related to a rapid increase in their tolerance, high susceptibility to physical and psychological dependence and central nervous system depression — factors that can lead to coma or death (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021c). The global burden of disease attributed to the use and abuse of opium-derived drugs makes up the bulk of drug-related illnesses (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h).

Due to the properties of the poppy for the production of analgesics and illicit drugs, several measures are taken to control its cultivation, in order to avoid the production of substances such as heroin, which cause high harmful effects on the health of its users. On the other hand, opium and its alkaloids — morphine and codeine — are widely used for medical purposes, in a context of licit use of poppy and derived substances. Such use takes place within a legal framework, which is controlled by each government and endorsed in accordance with the legal provisions of the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (UNITED NATIONS, 1961). The availability of these substances to populations is supervised and controlled by the International Narcotics Control Board (JIFE – INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD, 2021).

Heroin is classified under Schedule IV of the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the production, supply and cultivation of opium poppy is authorized for medical and scientific purposes only. Afghanistan is the global leader in illicit poppy cultivation and opiate production, accounting for 85% of world opium production in 2020, followed by Myanmar, Mexico, Laos and, to a lesser extent, Colombia and Guatemala (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h, 2010, 2019).

 

Cannabis: Cannabis sativa

Cannabis cultivation originated in Western Asia and Egypt, later spreading to Europe. It is a widely distributed plant, found in a wide variety of habitats and altitudes (PERTWEE, 2014). It is important to note that this section focuses on the description of the monitoring of cannabis sativa crops, and there are several other genera of the plant. As such, Cannabis sativa is used in different ways for the production of cannabis and its derivatives, for example: (1) herbal cannabis, which are the dried leaves and floral tops of the plant, which give rise to what is more commonly known as “ cannabis”, “marijuana”, “ganja” or “herb”, among others; (2) cannabis resin, which consists of the pressed secretions of the plant, known as “hashish” (3) and, finally, cannabis oil — a mixture resulting from the distillation or extraction of the plant's active principles.

Cannabis herb is the most commonly used form for consumption, while cannabis resin is mainly used in Europe. In general, cannabis is the illicit drug with the greatest evidence of production and consumption worldwide (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2013).

Unlike other drugs of plant origin, whose cultivation and production are concentrated in a few countries in particular, cannabis is produced in almost every country in the world (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h). According to the World Drug Report 2021, significant cannabis production is likely to exist in the following regions: North America (Mexico, United States and Canada); South America (Paraguay, northeast Brazil and Colombia); Central America (Guatemala, Costa Rica and Honduras); Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago); Africa (Morocco, Egypt, South Africa, Nigeria, Eswatini, Ghana); Europe (Netherlands, Spain, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Albania, Turkey, Romania, Russia and Ukraine); Asia (Afghanistan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, India, Nepal, Philippines, Laos, Thailand and Indonesia); Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021h) (POLICIA FEDERAL, 2021).

Main territories affected by illicit crops worldwide

Prepared by: CdE – Center of Excellence for Reducing the Supply of Illicit Drugs.
The thematic content represented in this map does not constitute recognition or acceptance by the countries.

 

As seen in the map above, the main territories affected by illicit crops worldwide are represented categorically. Therefore, monitoring has been a strategy adopted mainly in countries with the highest production rate of illicit crops to identify, prevent, significantly reduce and/or eliminate illicit crops.

Below, some strategies identified in relation to the monitoring of illicit crops around the world will be presented, with an emphasis on the Americas.

The UNODC World Illicit Crop Monitoring Program

UNODC has been developing methodologies and indicators in collaboration with Member States and other partners to support the monitoring of illicit crops, through the Global Illicit Crop Monitoring Program (ICMP). The ICMP is an initiative that originated after the Special Session on Drugs of the United Nations General Assembly in 1998, in which Member States agreed to outline strategies for the elimination or significant reduction of the supply of illicit crops used for the production of drugs. illicit Subsequently, the Commission on Narcotics requested UNODC, in its resolution 42/3, “Monitoring and Verification of Illicit Crops”, to provide Member States with the necessary technical assistance to collect reliable and internationally comparable data on the issue (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021g).

ICMP supports research and studies related to the detection, monitoring and analysis of the dynamics of illicit crops in the following countries: coca in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia; poppy in Afghanistan, Mexico and Myanmar; and cannabis in Nigeria and Morocco (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021g). These surveys are carried out jointly with the governments involved and focus on gathering information on areas under illegal cultivation, chemical precursors and production of synthetic drugs, prices and estimates of the market value of illicit drugs, among other variables. Countries that have implemented ICMP carry out activities according to their resources, capacity and expertise, receiving technical support from UNODC (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2008b).

In this sense, the program is implemented by the different UNODC field teams, in close collaboration with the ICMP team at UNODC headquarters in Vienna, which supports the development of methodologies in search of the best quality standards and validates the final estimates ( UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021g). The monitoring techniques are based on the use of several qualitative and quantitative methodologies, such as: field evaluations, questionnaires, verification overflights, interviews, statistical and socioeconomic analyses, as well as the use of integrated technologies of satellite images ( remote sensing) and geospatial data, in conjunction with other sources of information.

However, the monitoring of illicit crops presents a series of constantly changing dynamics, from physical-geographic characteristics, through agrocultural patterns, availability of technological and logistical resources, among others. In this sense, the methodologies applied require adaptations and adjustments for their implementation according to the context, in order to obtain the best possible results.

The detection and identification of coca crops, for example, is complex, as the plants can be grown and harvested at virtually any time of year, mixed with other types of licit crops, or hidden under other crops to avoid your identification. The presence of organized crime actors in the affected territories is another major challenge, as it hampers the verification and collection of data in the monitored territories, as well as the interdiction activities of the place by the security forces.

In this regard, it is important to mention that, although UNODC supports and develops actions to monitor illicit crops, it does not participate in the implementation or verification of interdiction (eradication) activities. These activities, in turn, are carried out by the governments of the countries in which ICMP is implemented.

Objectives

The main objectives of ICMP include (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 1999) (SIMCI, 2019):

  • Provide technical assistance to governments upon request to monitor illicit crops and inhibit their growth and transfer to neighboring areas.
  • Encourage governments in all coca, cannabis and opium poppy producing areas to design and implement effective national mechanisms for high-accuracy monitoring and verification of illicit crops, with a view to promoting international cooperation strategies on eradicating these crops and alternative development.
  • Work with requesting governments, through an agreement that establishes guidelines for the collection and dissemination of information, and with relevant governmental, intergovernmental, regional and technical organizations, in establishing an international network to monitor illicit crops.
  • Establish, within available resources, a central database and system based on information provided by governments on illicit cultivation, including crops located in closed locations.
  • Annually report to the Narcotics Commission on the current global situation of illicit crops and on the impact of strategies developed by governments to eliminate and replace them.
  • Detect dynamics associated with illicit crops and their transformations in the territory, with a monitoring scheme based on Remote Sensing3 from Geographic Information Systems4 (GIS).
  • Characterize dynamics that, although not visible in the territory, are decisive for the establishment of illicit activities, through the development of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, including the characterization of the production of coca leaf for cocaine hydrochloride, the trafficking of drugs and substances chemicals, as well as related crimes related to the problem.
  • Characterize, monitor and evaluate the different actions and policies related to the fight against drugs with the structuring of comprehensive indicators and methodologies.

In this sense, in order to identify some practices within the ICMP/UNODC program, the experiences of Colombia, Mexico and Morocco with the monitoring of illicit crops will be described below.

Methodology and description of experiences

Colombia

The Illicit Crop Monitoring System (SIMCI) of the UNODC office in Colombia is a technology project that provides information on the dynamics of drug production and other crimes. Since 1999, using geographic information sciences (GIScience), remote sensing and field verifications, the project has calculated the hectares cultivated with coca and the potential for cocaine hydrochloride production in geographic regions with specific social, economic and cultural characteristics. in Colombia. SIMCI focuses on coca monitoring and is mainly characterized by the processing of medium spatial resolution satellite images. Such images, when integrated with geospatial data and other sources of information, allow interpretations of the dynamics of illicit crops for later validation of the results obtained by aerial reconnaissance (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2018).

The research model with a geographic focus is based on the construction of primary information, field work and the design of indicators that allow obtaining data on several variables, for example: socioeconomic conditions, chemical substances used in the production of drugs, information on drug prices and its derivatives, studies on the prevalence of synthetic drugs and NPS. Additionally, the project assesses the territories through different approaches and monitors the consequences arising from illegal gold mining (SIMCI, 2019).

Figure 6 systematizes how SIMCI Colombia works, presents the thematic areas of action and how they are interconnected, and identifies some of the main actors involved with SIMCI at the national level.

UNODC Colombia Illicit Crop Monitoring System

Source: (SIMCI, 2019).

 

Some main steps are observed in this methodology: initially the images are selected and acquired — using images from the Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and World View-2 satellites. Therefore, these images are pre-processed by the application of techniques to correct or remove sensor errors and captured atmospheric effects, such as contrast and spatial resolution techniques (pansharpening), in order to improve the delimitation and detection of objects. The project adopted the World Geodetic System 19845 (WGS84) as a spatial reference frame and, to facilitate the work of interpretation, a mosaic of images from all over the country was built, which is defined as the georeferencing base for each of the images (SIMCI, 2019).

Subsequently, processes of interpretation of the coca fields are carried out, based on the visual interpretation of the satellite images collected, considering the pictomorphological elements (tone, shape, texture, pattern), dynamics of behavior when interacting with the earth's surface, geographic environment, specific characteristics of the area. In addition to the elements of the image itself, other parameters and sources of information are used in the interpretation process: the analysis of the coca historical series; information collected in the field, and other secondary ones, such as georeferenced photographs taken in overflights by the National Police, manual eradication data and information provided by different government agencies and the United Nations System (SIMCI, 2019). From the intersection of the aforementioned elements, it is possible to obtain a more qualified picture for the identification of coca plantations and provide evidence about other territorial coverage, as illustrated in Figure 7.

Visual interpretation of coca fields. Visually interpreted coca fields in Sentinel-2 images. The. Red outline. Natural color RGB (4, 3,2) b. Yellow outline. False RGB color (8, 4,12, XNUMX)

Source: (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2018).

Once the procedures for processing and interpreting the satellite image have been carried out, verification overflights are carried out — which are necessary for eventual adjustments and subsequent validation of the information. This verification is based on visual inspection, from an aircraft, of the territories affected by coca cultivation, through a system of direct capture of information in the field. An electronic device synchronized with a GPS antenna is used, which allows the creation of a vector file, built by the specialist during the overflight. In it, a field, nucleus or zone is qualified based on a list of previously defined attributes (coca field, high or low density zone, replanting, uncovered soil, other crops and others). This process has the advantage of reducing the editing the information obtained in the field and at the same time allowing the construction of a georeferenced historical archive of the verification missions (SIMCI, 2019).

Likewise, during the flyover, a digital camera is used to take photographs, a video camera to capture additional information and GPS to record the geographical references of areas with or without coca. Overflight verification is supported by the Directorate of Anti-narcotics of the National Police of Colombia (DIRAN). All these resources are used to gather information that help the editing processes of the territories interpreted in the initial stage, considering the date of the images and the date of the interdiction operations carried out in the area covered by the image. Finally, once the editing is done, the coca cultivation interpretation file is obtained (SIMCI, 2019).

The International Center for Strategic Studies against Drug Trafficking (CIENA) is a centre specialized in the development of studies and research, with the objective of generating scientific, analytical and conceptual inputs that contribute to strategies to combat drug trafficking. The products generated aim to qualify the understanding, magnitude, causes and consequences of the drug problem, through the analysis of various factors that influence and are related to drug trafficking, such as social, economic, political, technological, environmental and cultural, to guide actions and institutions involved in the control of drug production and trafficking at the national, regional and hemispheric levels.

CIENA participates in the identification and characterization of New Psychoactive Substances and emerging drugs through the Rapid Alert System of Colombia, and has the only Experimental Coke Cultivation in the hemisphere, within the scope of the Directorate of Antinarcotics of the National Police of Colombia, established from the Resolution 20 of 2006 of the National Council on Narcotic Drugs. The experimental crop is located at the International School for the Use of the Police Force for Peace (CENOP) “Brigadier-General Jaime Gómez”, in the municipality of San Luis, in the department of Tolima, Colombia, for the study and analysis of the coca plant and its derivatives.

The International Center for Strategic Studies against Drug Trafficking (CIENA) is a centre specialized in the development of studies and research, with the objective of generating scientific, analytical and conceptual inputs that contribute to strategies to combat drug trafficking. The products generated aim to qualify the understanding, magnitude, causes and consequences of the drug problem, through the analysis of various factors that influence and are related to drug trafficking, such as social, economic, political, technological, environmental and cultural, to guide actions and institutions involved in the control of drug production and trafficking at the national, regional and hemispheric levels.

CIENA participates in the identification and characterization of New Psychoactive Substances and emerging drugs through the Rapid Alert System of Colombia, and has the only Experimental Coke Cultivation in the hemisphere, within the scope of the Directorate of Antinarcotics of the National Police of Colombia, established from the Resolution 20 of 2006 of the National Council on Narcotic Drugs. The experimental crop is located at the International School for the Use of the Police Force for Peace (CENOP) “Brigadier-General Jaime Gómez”, in the municipality of San Luis, in the department of Tolima, Colombia, for the study and analysis of the coca plant and its derivatives.

Source: National Police of Colombia – Directorate of Antinarcotics, International Center for Strategic Studies against Drug Trafficking – Services Portfolio

Mexico

Mexico is one of the countries affected by the presence of illicit crops on its territory, being one of the three largest poppy producers in the world, followed by Afghanistan and Myanmar. Together, the three are responsible for about 96% of the world's poppy production (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d).

In this sense, since 2012, the project “Monitoring System of Illicit Crops in Mexico” has been implemented — an initiative created in partnership between UNODC and the Government of Mexico, within the scope of ICMP. Some actors that make up the system are the Ministry of the Navy (SEMAR), the Ministry of National Defense (SEDENA) and the Attorney General's Office (FGR), through the Coordination of Investigation Methods with the participation of the National Planning Center. , Analysis and Information on Combating Crime (FGR-CMI-CENAPI), and with the support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE) (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2020), as shown in Figure 8.

Institutions and actors that make up the Crop Monitoring System in Mexico

Source: (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d).

 

The project builds on the experience of ICMP, in which UNODC provides technical assistance to Mexico, which in turn coordinates and carries out the monitoring of illicit crops for research, analysis and statistics in the country. It is a system responsible for the permanent monitoring and detection of illicit poppy crops in Mexican territory, through the use of remote sensing technologies (satellite images and aerial photographs) — which allows the generation of reliable and transparent statistics and information through the generation of evidence. and scientific data. Thus, the initiative makes it possible to identify trends in poppy production for the promotion of comprehensive public policies aimed at reducing the supply and social consequences of the illicit drug market (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2020).

The methodology for monitoring and estimating areas affected by illicit poppy cultivation consists of seven general steps, each with sub-processes that use a varied set of techniques, such as geoprocessing tools, field data collection and information analysis through Systems of Geographic Information (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d). The project uses satellite images with different spatial resolutions, from 1,5 m to 0,30 m, collected by the SPOT-6 and SPOT-7, Geo Eye-1, Word View-2 and Word View-3 satellites. There is also access to aerial photography data collected with digital cameras with a spatial resolution of up to 0,20 m. The combination of images from the sensors mentioned above, collected on different dates, allows the team of technical experts to identify, monitor or validate new poppy crops, which increases the accuracy of the information.

National risk area and poppy planting probabilities

Source: (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d).

 

Before performing the analysis, different correction processes are performed on the satellite images, such as: fusion, orthorectification, geometric correction, clipping and histogram improvement using digital image processing techniques. Additional techniques are used during the interpretation process to identify and measure the area affected by poppy cultivation, such as the combination of spectral bands, multitemporal analysis with satellite images from different remote sensors, among other techniques. Figure 9 presents the description of such steps.

General steps of the methodology of the Crop Monitoring System in Mexico

Source: (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d).

 

Morocco

Morocco is considered one of the main sources of cannabis resin and hashish, supplying in particular the European market through illicit production concentrated in the north of the country, which covers approximately 20.000 km². Since 1980, the available information about the country indicated an increasing trend of illicit cultivation of cannabis, but the estimates of the areas of cultivation and production of hashish were not systematized, so that, in 2003, under the ICMP, an agreement was signed cooperation with UNODC to initiate the first study to monitor illicit cannabis cultivation and organized crime in Morocco (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2003, 2007).

The methodology is based on the acquisition and processing of satellite images to locate, delimit and estimate the areas of cannabis cultivation, following the general steps adopted by the ICMP. In Morocco, 5 m spatial resolution SPOT-10 images were acquired. Then, different digital image processing techniques were used (geometric corrections, radiometric corrections, atmospheric corrections, filters, contrasts, etc.), use of topographic maps and unsupervised classification techniques — elements that, when combined with external documents and field experiments, are used to determine the location of cannabis growing areas, followed by field checks; data surveys and field research by sampling of farmers, to collect information on income from cannabis production, the number of families involved in this activity, the average income of these families, as well as the registration of the geographical coordinates of a thousand lots through the use of GPS devices. These data are analyzed by UNODC specialists and used during the processing and interpretation of satellite images (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2003, 2007).

Summary table of information on the monitoring of illicit crops

Crop Monitoring Instruments in the US

The USA does not have a high incidence of illicit crops in its territory, however it is a key player in the international scenario in relation to the trade and consumption of illicit drugs, and has an improved system for analyzing and monitoring various aspects of the production chain. and drug trafficking. The United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) annually publishes the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report – INCSR, which describes the efforts of key countries6 to address aspects of the international drug trade. The publication covers drug and chemical control activities, money laundering and financial crimes, assessment and analysis of illicit drug producing or transit countries, among other aspects related to drug control within the scope of the UN Conventions on Drugs (UNITED). STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

In the content of the INCSR, there are sections destined to the description of the main actions, plans and programs adopted for the control of illicit substances and the monitoring of such actions. Additionally, there is identification and information on the main countries involved in the global chain of production, distribution and consumption of illicit drugs, such as producing countries, transit countries, sources of precursor chemical substances and main countries used for money laundering (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

Methodology

INCSR-2021 indicates that accurate estimates of illicit crops are difficult to obtain, and that, therefore, the estimates presented in the report represent the best US effort to assess the current dimensions of the international drug problem. The information is based on agricultural studies using satellite images and scientific studies on crop yields and the likely efficiency of illicit refining laboratories. Estimates are published with the caveat that they are only “estimates” and that quantitative results should not be viewed as precise numbers — rather, they represent the midpoint of a range of statistical probability that becomes wider as additional variables are added. introduced and as crops move from harvest to refined drug (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

When necessary, the estimation process is reviewed and, sometimes, the estimates themselves are made in the field using technological resources, as the clandestine and violent nature of the illicit drug trade, the climate, the geographic characteristics and the large extensions of the areas affected by illicit crops hinder field investigations and the ability to collect reliable information in diverse and difficult-to-access regions (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).
Analytical technologies and techniques are also employed in the methodology to produce estimates of potential drug production. These techniques are reviewed annually and, where possible, new techniques are applied to data from previous years with appropriate adjustments, but often, especially in the case of new technologies, they can only be applied prospectively. The statistics published in the INCSR on illicit drugs represent the current state of the art, and as new technologies are employed, the information and accuracy of the estimates tend to improve (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

Specifically for the estimation of illicit crops, sampling techniques are applied in areas with strategic amounts of illicit crops or in areas most likely to have illicit crops. In addition, several data sets are analyzed, including eradication data, seizure data, information from police investigations, historical series of field research, among other sources of information; then areas of illicit crops are detected and, through constant review and updating, new areas are identified and evaluated using proven statistical techniques. The results obtained support the US government for the annual estimate of illicit crops in each country, as well as contribute to the interdiction and eradication operations carried out by law enforcement agencies (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

The estimates for the production of coca leaf, cocaine, marijuana, opium and heroin are potential estimates, that is, the methodology applied by the INCSR assumes that all coca, cannabis and opium poppy cultivation is harvested and processed for the production of illicit drugs. This is a reasonable assumption for the coca leaf in Colombia; however, in Bolivia and Peru, estimates of potential cocaine production tend to be less adequate, as they do not consider, in the calculation, that part of the production corresponds to the chewed coca leaf used in products that integrate local cultural practices, such as coca tea. (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

Regarding heroin production in Southwest and Southeast Asia and Latin America, the methodology applied by the INCSR assumes that virtually all poppy is harvested for the production of opium gum, but substantial amounts of Asian opium are consumed or stored, in instead of being processed into heroin; the proportion of opium that is ultimately transformed into heroin is unknown (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

In this regard, as part of the methodology to identify a country as a producer of illicit crops/drugs, or as a transit country, the criteria established by the INCSR are described in Table 3.

Criteria established by the INCSR

Brazilian context

In the Brazilian context, there is more expressive evidence of illicit cultivation of cannabis sativa in the so-called “marijuana polygon”, between the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, in the Northeast region, with records of cultivation since the 2009th century. Although there is no consensus on the cities that make up the marijuana polygon, there are reports that such practices are more intense in the Sertão and São Francisco regions — strategic points for the flow and trafficking of drugs (ZAVERUCHA; OLIVEIRA; RODRIGUES, XNUMX). ).

In the last 20 years, the Brazilian Government, mainly through the Federal Police, has intensified its actions to repress and eradicate illicit crops and, more recently, it was established through MJSP Ordinance nº 535, of September 22, 2020, the Integrated and Safe Environment Program (Brasil MAIS), whose objective is to promote the use and application of geotechnology and remote sensing to support functions and competencies in the area of ​​public security (BRASIL, 2020) (MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SECURITY, 2021).

Among the main features of the Brasil MAIS program, the possibility of obtaining satellite images of high spatial resolution (Optical Images Planetscope 3 m), with continuous imaging and daily temporal resolution of the entire national territory, stands out. These capabilities allow the Federal Police and other security forces to generate applications for the identification and monitoring of illicit crops, identification of the opening of irregular roads and clandestine landing strips in areas associated with drug trafficking, monitoring of suspicious vessels, among other activities. related to organized crime — such as deforestation and illegal mining.

Within the scope of the Brasil MAIS Program, there is the Situational Awareness Subprogram for remote sensing, in which geoprocessing and remote sensing with high resolution images are used, as well as image integration, distribution and analysis tools, as well as the development of research, algorithms and techniques to deal with the aforementioned problems. Specifically regarding the identification of illicit crops, the Federal Police developed an algorithm that, through the use of remote sensing images and deep learning techniques, allows the detection of illicit cannabis crops with great efficiency (potential for issuing an alert after the culture to reach sufficient biomass for differentiation – from 2 to 2,5 months). This methodology contributed to the improvement of the Federal Police's operational strategies in relation to the detection of illicit crops in the northeast region of the country (MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SECURITY, 2021).

Previously, it was necessary to carry out, first, reconnaissance flights to identify the areas affected by illicit marijuana crops and, later, another air ticket was made to transport the interdiction teams assigned to the activities of eradication of illicit crops (MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND SECURITY PUBLIC, 2021).

These procedures alerted criminal organizations and, when the Federal Police arrived, it was not possible to find those responsible and carry out the procedures in the act. Currently, with the use of this new methodology, the Federal Police will improve the capacity to eradicate illicit marijuana crops in the national territory, since the initial identification of illicit crops can be done remotely (MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SECURITY, 2021).

Results

There are results that are common to the experiences of different countries where ICMP has been implemented. As a result of the project, a strengthening of the capacity to combat illicit crops can be seen, through the systematization of continuous and historical statistical and spatial information, which enable evidence-based planning of public actions and policies.

It is also worth noting that the project is an example of institutional cooperation, since the implementation of the ICMP in the experiences described involved the integration of different national and international actors. Likewise, it is evident that any approach to combating illicit crops cannot be conceived at the level of a single territory, as the issue affects both producing and consuming countries — where there are important markets and considerable financial flows. Therefore, sharing information, exchanging experiences and methodological contributions is an essential part of the work developed.

Looking more closely at the results at the national level, it is important to mention that Colombia has become a regional leader in efforts against illicit drug trafficking — as demonstrated by the highest levels of eradication of illicit coca crops since 2012, record numbers of seizures in recent years and for its potential to train other security agencies in South America (UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 2021).

Among the results and publications of the Colombian project, the elaboration of the methodology for carrying out the sense of illicit coca crops through GIScience, remote sensing and field verifications, carried out in 1999, stands out. publish the “Annual Census on coca cultivation”, the first edition of which refers to 2002, with subsequent annual publications until 2017. As of 2018, the publication gave way to the “Monitoring of territories affected by illicit crops”, also edited annually , the most recent being published this year, with information from 2020.

In Morocco, however, it was possible to obtain an accurate picture of the extent of cannabis cultivation in the northern provinces of the country. The ICMP identified that: a) a quarter of usable agricultural land in the region is occupied by the expansion of cannabis cultivation; b) half of the low annual income of 800.000 people, or two-thirds of the rural population of this region, depend on cannabis cultivation practices; c) a fragile ecosystem is more threatened by deforestation and soil erosion each year; d) an annual market of 10 billion euros is in the hands of trafficking networks that operate mainly in Europe. These findings show the economic importance of illicit crops in the country, making the challenge of dealing with them even greater.

Finally, in Mexico, the preparation of reports on “Monitoramento de Cultivo de Papoula” stands out, with four editions published from 2016 to 2021, covering information on cultivation from 2014 to 2019. In this period, 136.024,4 hectares of poppy were destroyed. The year with the greatest destruction was 2017, with 29.824,5 ha. 2019 was the year with the smallest area reported, corresponding to 11.843,9 ha, indicating a reduction of 49,9% (difference of 11.781,6 ha). These results derive from 1.153.392 interdiction activities aimed at the destruction of illicit poppy crops, corresponding to approximately 0,1 hectares of opium poppy destroyed by interdiction activities. In the same period, there was an average annual seizure of 18,1 liters and 473,5 kg of heroin (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2021d).

In this sense, it can be observed, based on the experiences mentioned in this chapter, that such technologies are important and potential tools for the work of security forces and relevant institutions to identify, monitor and prevent illicit crops. However, it is important to emphasize that the effective reduction and control of these cultures constitute a complex challenge, since the problem is multi-causal — and, therefore, demands comprehensive, multidisciplinary and continuous approaches.

Regarding the experiences described and analyzed, promising practices were identified that were decisive for achieving effective results, such as: the analytical capacity and the integration of data and information, as well as the elaboration and dissemination, among the actors involved, of consolidated reports, the construction of time series and multivariate analyses; the strengthening of institutional capacities and inter-institutional cooperation and continuous improvement in relation to the development, review and updating of techniques and methodologies, seeking the best available resources. Additionally, it is worth mentioning the diversity of specialties required for the consolidation of more comprehensive monitoring systems and tools, considering the intersections with the different areas of knowledge.

Therefore, the international monitoring systems mentioned here innovate by integrating data and information from different variables that make up the illicit drug production and market chain. In other words, it seeks to expand knowledge about drug production processes, income and price estimates, market and econometric analyses, socioeconomic aspects, among others, enabling increasingly qualified subsidies for decision-making and the formulation of interventions. . The improvement of such capacities and the use of new technologies are strategies that help in the estimation of the production of illicit drugs and identification of trends, which, finally, helps countries in the formulation of drug control policies, alternative strategies for subsistence and development. sustainable (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, 2008a).

footnotes

  1. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/lei/l11343.htm. Accessed on: 09 Sep. 2021.
  2. The Andes Mountains cross the western coast of South America, covering the countries of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina.
  3. It is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through the process of recording, measuring, and interpreting images and digital representations of energy patterns derived from non-contact sensor systems.
  4. Integrated collection of data and computer software used to visualize and manage information about geographic locations, analyze spatial relationships, and model spatial processes. A GIS provides a framework for grouping and organizing spatial data and related information so that it can be visualized and analyzed.
  5. It is the geocentric datum and the most used coordinate system today. It was designed by the US Department of Defense. The geocentric datum is a reference point that has its origin at the centre of the Earth's mass from which position measurements are taken to define the geographic coordinate system.
  6. Afghanistan, Armenia, Albania, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cape Verde, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Netherlands, Eastern Caribbean, Ecuador, El Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana , Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos Republic, Liberia, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Suriname, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam.

References

BERG-NIGGENDIJKER, T. Poppies. 1 June 2006. 1 photograph. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/57846262@N00/346507781/. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

BRAZIL. Ordinance No. 535, of September 22, 2020. Establishes the Brasil MAIS Program. Official Gazette: section 1, Brasília, DF, n. 184, p. 73, 24 Sept. 2020. Available at: https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/portaria-n-535-de-22-de-setembro-de-2020-279178267. Access on: 10 Dec. 2021.

BRAZIL. Presidency of the Republic. 11.343 Law 23, August 2006. Establishes the National System of Public Policies on Drugs – Sisnad; prescribes measures to prevent misuse, care and social reintegration of drug users and addicts; establishes rules for the repression of unauthorized production and illicit drug trafficking; defines crimes and makes other provisions. Brasilia: 23 Aug. 2006. Available at: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/lei/l11343.htm. Access on: 29 Oct. 2021.

COLOMBIA. Resolution No. 20, of May 12, 2006. National Narcotic Drugs Council. Official Journal: no. 46.311, June 26, 2006. 2021b. Available at: https://normograma.info/mindef/docs/pdf/resolucion_cnestupefacientes_0020_2006.pdf . Accessed on: 16/12/2021.

EUROPEAN MONITORING CENTER FOR DRUGS AND DRUG ADDICTION. European Drug Report 2021: Trends and Developments. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg: EMCDDA, 2021.

GLOBAL FINANCIAL INTEGRITY. Transnational Crime and the Developing World, 2017. Available at: https://gfintegrity.org/report/transnational-crime-and-the-developing-world/. Access on: 29 Oct. 2021.

GRAY-WILSON, C. Poppies: A Guide to the Poppy Family in the Wild and in Cultivation. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 2000.

GUEVARA, D. Coca Erythroxylum coca. 2 Aug. 2018. 1 photograph. Available at: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15059501. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD. The international narcotics control board. INCB. Available at: https://www.incb.org/incb/en/about.html. Accessed on: 21 Aug. 2021.

LUCENA, A. Destroy 410 coca plants and a support centre on the border with Colombia. YVKE World. Zulia, Venezuela: 18 Nov. 2017. Available at: http://www.radiomundial.com.ve/article/destruyen-410-mil-plantas-de-coca-y-un-centro-de-acopio-en-la-frontera-con-colombia . Accessed on: 27 Aug. 2021.

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY. Brasil MAIS Program – Integrated and Safe Environment. YouTube, 7 Jan. 2021. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVqQ_ZAhEJk . Accessed on: 26 Aug. 2021.

PERTWEE, R. Handbook of Cannabis🇧🇷 United Kingdom: OXFORD University Press, 2014.

PINTO, J. Characterization of activities associated with illicit drug trafficking in the border zone of Venezuela with Colombia, using remote perception techniques. Central University of Venezuela. Thesis of Grado (Master in Spatial Analysis and Territory Management). Venezuela: 2017. Available at: http://sibucv.ucv.ve/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=243711. Access on: 29 Oct. 2021.

PLOWMAN, T.; HENSOLD, N. Names, types, and distribution of neotropical species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae). Brittonia, v. 56, no. 1, p. 1-53, 2004.

FEDERAL POLICE. Lecture Federal Police Chief Marcos Paulo Pimentel. YouTube, 25 jun. 2021. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5brcqgH60X4&t=694s. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

NATIONAL POLICE OF COLOMBIA. International Center for Strategic Studies against Drug Trafficking. Second Bulletin: Cannabis in Colombia, no. 2, 2017. Available at: https://www.policia.gov.co/centro-estudios-narcotrafico/productos. Accessed on: 27 Aug. 2021.

NATIONAL POLICE OF COLOMBIA. Directorate of Antinarcotics. International Center for Strategic Studies against Drug Trafficking. Coca: Deforestation, contamination and poverty. Bogota: National Press of Colombia, 2014.

Rangel, G. Miranda and Sucre satellites have contributed more than a million images for the benefit of the country. Press of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. Venezuelan Portal of Information on Science and Technology. 15 June 2021. Available at: https://www.mincyt.gob.ve/satelites-miranda-y-sucre-han-aportado-mas-de-un-millon-de-imagenes-para-el-beneficio-del-pais / Accessed on: 27 Aug. 2021.

INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR MONITORING ILLICIT CROPS. SIMCI Project. 2019. Available at: https://biesimci.org/index.php?id=57. Accessed on: 22 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Agreement modification of the collaboration agreement between SEDENA, SEMAR, FGR, SRE and UNODC for the implementation of the MEXK54 Project “Monitoring System for Illicit Crops in the Mexican Territory”🇧🇷 UNODC, 2020.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Bulletin on Narcotics. Vienna: v. 4, no. 2, UNODC, 1953. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1953-01-01_3_page004.html#n03. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Cannabis, A Short Review. Vienna: UNODC, 2013. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/drug-prevention-and-treatment/cannabis_review.pdf. Accessed on: 24 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Agrocultural Characteristics of Coca Cultivations in Colombia🇧🇷 Colombia: UNODC, 2010a.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Agrocultural characterization of amapola cultivation and the affected territories🇧🇷 Colombia: UNODC, 2019a.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Cocaine – a spectrum of products. Cocaine Insights 2. Vienna: UNODC, 2021a. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/cocaine/Cocaine_Insights_2021_2.pdf. Accessed on: 07 oct. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. CRIMJUST – Virtual Training for the Investigation of Cocaine Production and Trafficking🇧🇷 UNODC, 2021b.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Ecuador: Monitoring of Coca Crops. Ecuador: UNODC, 2010b. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/Ecuador/Ecu09_Coca_Survey_es.pdf. Accessed on: 25 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Heroin. International UN campaign coordinated by UNODC. Vienna: UNODC, 2021c. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/drugs/es/get-the-facts/heroin.html. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. La Heroína: Chemical Characterization and Internal Market🇧🇷 Colombia: UNODC, 2016.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Maroc: Survey Sur Le Cannabis 2003🇧🇷 Maroc: UNODC, 2003.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Maroc: Survey Sur Le Cannabis 2005🇧🇷 Maroc: UNODC, 2007.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Mexico: Monitoring of Amapola Plantations 2018 – 2019🇧🇷 UNODC, 2021d.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Monitoring and verification of illicit cultivation. Vienna: UNODC, 1999. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/Resolutions/resolution_1999-03-25_3.html. Accessed on: 22 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Monitoring illicit crop production. Vienna: UNODC, 2008a. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/monitoring-illicit-crop-production.html. Accessed on: 25 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Monitoring illicit crop production. Vienna: UNODC, 2008b. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/monitoring-illicit-crop-production.html. Accessed on: 25 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Integrated System for Monitoring Illicit Crops (SIMCI). Colombia: Monitoring of territories affected by illicit crops 2020🇧🇷 Bogota: UNODC, 2021e.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Integrated System for Monitoring Illicit Crops (SIMCI). Colombia: Monitoring of territories affected by illicit crops 2017. Bogota: UNODC, 2018.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Illicit Crop Monitoring Integrated System (SIMCI). Bogota: UNODC, 2019b. Available at: https://www.biesimci.org/index.php?id=6. Accessed on: 07 oct. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. University Module Series, Organized Crime. Module 3: Organized Crime Markets. UNODC, 2021f. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/e4j/tertiary/organized-crime.html. Access on: 29 Oct. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. UNODC and illicit crop monitoring. Vienna: UNODC, 2021g. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crop-monitoring/index.html. Accessed on: 25 Aug. 2021.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. World Drug Report 2010🇧🇷 Vienna: UNODC, 2010c.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. World Drug Report 2019🇧🇷 Vienna: UNODC, 2019c.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. World Drug Report 2021🇧🇷 Vienna: UNODC, 2021h.

UNITED NATIONS. United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Single convention on narcotic drugs, 1961🇧🇷 New York: United Nations, 1961.

UNITED NATIONS. United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988🇧🇷 Vienna: United Nations, 1988.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE. 2021 International Narcotics Control Strategy Reports. 2021. Available at: https://www.state.gov/2021-international-narcotics-control-strategy-report/#:~:text=The%202021%20International%20Narcotics%20Control,trade%20in%20Calendar%20Year %202020. Access on: 10 Dec. 2021.

UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. A photograph of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge. 1 Aug. 2007. 1 photograph. Available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=21916. Accessed on: 20 Aug. 2021.

WHITE, R. Transnational Environmental Crime: Toward an eco-global criminology. London: Taylor & Francis, 2011.

ZAVERUCHA, J.; OLIVEIRA, A; RODRIGUES, E. Marijuana Polygon: socioeconomic context, homicides and the role of the Public Ministry. Security with Citizenship Collection, v. 1, p. 175-194, 2009.

EnglishPortugueseSpanish